The ﬁnal goal of human science is to know the self. In the early 1990's, the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Science, Sports, and Technology (MECSST, or Monbu-Kagaku-Sho) launched a revolutionary plan for funding academic science in Japan. The plan provides focused support to super select research groups deemed capable of developing into world class centers of excellence (COE) in ﬁelds ranging from cosmology to economics (Science 269:474, 1995). The Center for Integrated Human Brain Science is an institute established by this COE project for the speciﬁc realistic goal of elucidating the neural substrates of the human mind. The center consists of three departments (Integrated Neuroscience, Functional Neurology & Neurosurgery, and Biological Magnetic Resonance).