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Nakada's Vortex Theory is brilliant and thought provoking. It provides a challenging new perspective on brain structure and the large-scale integration of cerebral functions. An important work! 

David L. Woods,
Professor of Neurology, UC Davis
Editorial Board: Cognitive Brain Research

Link to PDF file of Integrated Human Brain Science
Integrated Human Brain Science (pp. 3–22)
Edited by Tsutomu Nakada
ISBN: 0-444-50629-2

If you are interested in the new doctrine of brain science that has been advocated by Dr. Nakada, please click on the cover of “Integrated Human Brain Science” placed on the right side, in which the first comprehensive article was made public. You can glance over the whole article that is found on pages between 3 and 22 in the book. The contents are provided as a PDF file and need Adobe® Reader® for being viewed.

The concept of the Brain Chip hypothesis was presented in Japanese in the books “Brain Equation One Plus One (Kinokuniya, 2001)” and “Plus Alpha (Kinokuniya, 2002)”. The concept has been summarized in this article in English by the author himself to fulfill multiple requests from colleagues outside of Japan. (Published in Magn Res Med Sci 3:51-63, 2004)

Link to PDF file of Brain Chip
by Tsutomu Nakada

An extract from the document “Brain Chip”, p13:

A highly plausible explanation for the basic mechanism of anesthetic agents is, as Linus C. Pauling anticipated, their effect on the kinetic viscosity of a fluid or gas involved in propagating an essential steady flow because of water microcrystal formation. Such an alteration in kinetic viscosity produces alteration in the kinetics of the steady flow and, hence, ELDER activities.

Formation of minute crystal structures of water molecules by general anesthetic agent such as Xenon is one of the physical bases of the Vortex Theory. After 45 years since Linus Pauling advanced this hydrate microcrystal theory, we are now living in an era where technology makes it possible to see the nano world and feel the points of the theory. The flash movies below are from our molecular dynamics studies of Xenon effect. (The file sizes are over 2MB each, so if you are on a narrowband connection, be patient until the movie appears.)

Movie 1:  Dynamic behavior of pure water molecules (left) and water molecules with Xenon (right). Water molecules are represented as red and white lines, and Xenon atoms are not shown.

Movie 2:  Another representation showing hydrogen bonds and a water molecule near the center of the simulation box.

Simulations were performed using the NPT ensemble (T = 300K, P = 1 bar) with GROMACS 3.3.1 ( [Lindahl et al., 2001] running on an SGI Origin 3800. Periodic boundary conditions were applied in all three dimensions.

Molecular graphics images were prepared using VMD 1.8.3 ( [Humphrey et al., 1996]

  1. Lindahl, E., B. Hess, and D. van der Spoel. 2001. GROMACS 3.0: a package for molecular simulation and trajectory analysis. J. Mol. Model. 7:306-317.
  2. Humphrey, W., A. Dalke, and K. Schulten. 1996. VMD: visual molecular dynamics. J. Mol. Graph. 14:33-38.

Biographical sketch of Dr.Tsutomu Nakada

Born in 1950 in Tokyo, Japan
Elementary to High School Education: Gakushuin, Tokyo
College and Medical/Graduate Schools: University of Tokyo
Degree: MD, PhD (Thesis: Biomedical Application of NMR)
Clinical Training:
University of Tokyo, University of California, San Francisco & Davis, and Stanford University
Medical License:
California & Japan
Board Certification:
Internal Medicine (Japan) and Neurology (USA & Japan)
Main Academic Position:
Assistant Professor of Neurology, University of California, Davis
Associate Professor of Neurology, University of California, Davis
Professor of Neurology, University of California, Davis
Professor, Brain Research Institute, University of Niigata
Council Member, Science Council of Japan
Main Affiliated Professorship:
California Institute of Technology (Beckman Institute)
University of Tsukuba (Faculty of Medicine)
University of Tohoku (Institute of Aging)
University of California, Berkeley (Helen Wills Institute)
Publications & Books/Chapters (PDF File)

Copyright © 2020 Center for Integrated Human Brain Science, University of Niigata.
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