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A photo of 256 channel EEG system.
Fig. 1: 256 channel EEG system.
A figure shows the diffrence of electric potential distribution between AP and non-AP.
Fig. 2: Possessors and non-possessors of absolute pitch (AP) were presented with pure tones. In listeners with AP, passive listening to the stimuli elicited a unique negativity over left posterior temporal scalp (AP negativity, arrow), at a relatively short latency of 150 msec (Ref. 1). The result suggests a close functional relationship between AP and language.

Our laboratory is equipped with the world's highest density 256-channel EEG recording and analysis system (Fig. 1). EEG has the greatest temporal resolution among various non-invasive techniques for studying human brain functions. Although it usually suffers low spatial resolution, this system is capable of recording EEG at excellent spatial resolution in three-dimensional space.

Electroencephalogram (EEG) reflects the sum of activities of a large number of neurons interacting dynamically in network. Sensory, motor, or cognitive events modulates the on-going EEG, the small amplitude change of which can be observed as evoked potential (EP) or event-related potential (ERP) by the method of time-locked averaging. We use this technique to investigate the neural substrates of higher brain functions such as music and language (Refs 1–3, Fig. 2).


  1. Itoh, K., Suwazono, S., Arao, H., Miyazaki, K., Nakada, T. Electrophysiological correlates of absolute pitch and relative pitch. Cerebral Cortex 15(6), 760–769, 2005.
  2. Huang, K., Itoh, K., Suwazono, S., Nakada, T. Electrophysiological correlates of grapheme-phoneme conversion. Neuroscience Letters 366(3), 254–258, 2004.
  3. Itoh, K., Suwazono, S., Nakada, T. Cortical processing of musical consonance: an evoked potential study. Neuroreport 14(18), 2303–2306, 2003.

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